Hii Linux users!!!
How its going? Not an Linux user? No problem you will also get this article… not a big deal.So today i am going to tell you about LINUX FILE MANAGEMENT i.e., i am gonna tell you about why there is that one folder,what type of files it contains,but guys this is just an introduction for the Linux root folders so i’m not going to explain each and every file but will explain enough so you will get an idea about these folders.OK lets start.
SO Let’s Start!!!!
Everything in your System becomes with the / directory.All your folders,Hard drives,USB everything is located in this root folder.We can’t go above this directory.This Root directory is denoted by the Slash(/) sign.This directory is the parental directory of the whole system.
/bin – Binaries
It contains program which are essential for system to boot and run so if you delete this directory your system will not boot and run.The programs stored here are in the binary format not in the text format so you can’t open and read the contents of this page.The advantage of such format is that the computer can read and executes this format very fast.
/boot – Boot files
As its name suggests this folder is used to boot your system.It contains the Linux kernel,initial RAM disk image(for drivers needed for boot time) and the boot loader(GRUB).Within this boot folder you will find the and GRUB folder,it contains GRUB configuration –> /boot/grub/grub.cfg. The GRUB folder also contains the Linux kernel (/boot/vmlinuz).
/dev – Device Nodes
Here all devices are represented as files.The dev folder contains files for all devices your linux is able to recognise.If you have a linux experience you may recalls when you mount a hard drive you use a name such as /dev/sda1 (sda-name of the disk), you can also find here USB devices,CPU etc.
The /etc folder comprises all system wise configuration files and some shell scripts that are executed during system boot.All files are text files here so they are human readable.
The home directory contains a home folder for each regular user on your Linux system.You have as many home folders as many users you have on your linux system.You can store your private data such as documents,videos,pictures,music,etc.When you open your file manager or terminal,by default you are located in your users home folder.
For example: In my system i have a folder named /home/ayush which is my folder and one more folder /home/user2 that belongs to another user whom i named as user2.So the home folder of every user is named by its user name.
/lib – Libraries
You recalls a /bin directory that contains programs.This /lib folder contains the libraries required by those programs in /bin folder. A Library is a set of file that are shared between programs.This is also essential for your system to work correctly.
/lost+found – Recovery
You will have this directory if you use a ext4 file system.Most of the modern linux distributions use ext4 file system so most likely you will have this folder.This is a file system specific folder,that is used for the recovery in case of a file corruption.Unless anything bad has happened this folder should be empty on your system.
/media – Auto mounting
This folder is used for automatic mounting of removable media such as USB drive,CD-ROM etc.
/mnt – manual mounting
The /mnt folder is similiar to /media folder,it is also used for mounting devices but it is usually used for mounting devices but it is usually used for manuall mounting only.You can manualli mount your devices to media.
/opt – Optional Software
This folder is not essential for your computer for work.Usually it is used for the installation of commercial programs on your system.For example: my dropbox installation is located in this folder.
/proc – Kernel Files
This is a virtual file system for the linux kernel.Usually you do not touch anything in this folder.It is needed only for the kernel to run different processes.
/root – Root Home
This is a home directory of your root user.Don’t compare it with / (root)directory.The / directory is the parental directory of the whole system whereas this /root directory is same as your /home directory but this directory is for your root account..If you are in as a root user you will be located in this directory by default.This is a folder for private data and account specific settings of your root account.
/run – Early temp
The /run is recently introduced folder i.e., actually an temporary file system.It is used to store temporary files very easily in the system boot when the other temporary folders become unavailable.
/sbin – System binaries
Similar to /bin this folder contains binaries for essential system tasks.But they are meant to be run by the super user (admin of the system).
/srv – Service
This directory contains service files installed on your system.For example:if you install a web server on your linux system it will be located in this folder.
/tmp – Temporary
This directory contains temporary files.This directory is usually cleaned on reboot.
/usr – User Binaries
This is probably the largest folder after your /home folder.This directory contains all programs used by a regular user.This directory contains some sub-directories.
But I am defining only those which are important, as i already mentioned above that this article is only an introduction to the Linux root folders…….
This contains programs installed by your Linux distribution.Here you will see thousands of
The libraries for the /usr/lib executables are located in /usr/lib folder.
The /usr/local doesn’t have any programs by default.But if you compile and install a program
wise that will be placed here.
The most useful is /usr/share.It contains shared data used by the programs of /usr/bin folder.
All the configuration files,themes,icons,wallpaper,sounds files are stored here.
For example:The folder /usr/share/doc contains the documentation files for programs installed
in your system.
/var – Variable Files
The /var contains files that are of variable content,so there content is not static and it constantly changes.For example:The folder /var/log contains the log files.(A log file is a file that records all events happening in your system while it is running).
Life is too short to explain every file and folder in detail so keep using Linux and you will find out about other files and folders yourself.Till then keep reading! Keep Learning! Hope you liked this and understood as well.
Linux is better than Windows and Marvel is better Than DC…….. k bye!!!!